There are two parts of metabolism whicmetabolism.h are Anabolism and catabolism, and both play a role in our body’s weight. Our body movements, our growing needs even thinking, our body needs fuel, we get this fuel from our diet as our body turns it into energy. It is the physical and chemical processes.
They are organism or living cells and they converts oxygen and food into energy. This happens by a chemical reaction known as metabolism, which is the rate at what our body burns kilojoules for energy.
Within our cells which turns the food we eat into energy for our body to function. Our body controls the speed of metabolism by releasing hormone’s. The anterior pituitary gland which is part of the endocrine system produces thyroid stimulating hormones (TSH), this controls the release of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), these hormones are produced and released by the thyroid gland which plays a significant role in determining the speed of the chemical reactions of metabolism is in our body. Although anabolism and catabolism happen at the same time in our cells the speed of the chemical reactions are separate.
Involves the hormones oestrogen, which is produce primarily by the ovaries, it is also produced by the liver and the adrenal glands, its anabolic functions includes increasing metabolism and fat deposition. insulin, is produced by the beta cells within the pancreas and they play a vital role in carbohydrates and fat metabolism, controls blood glucose levels, and promotes the uptake of glucose into the body cells these cells are in muscles, adipose tissues, and liver to accept glucose from blood, which has been stores it in the liver and muscles as glucagon.
Which is produced by the testes in males and the ovary in females stimulates an increase in muscle mass and strength as well the growth and strengthening of bones. and growth hormones which is synthesised and released from the pituitary gland this stimulates the growth of cells, tissues, and bones. Anabolism is the synthesis of all compounds such as proteins, nucleic acid, lipids, and carbohydrates. Anabolism state means building and maintaining muscles mass.
Another part of the endocrine system which plays a role in metabolism is the pancreas, it produces enzymes called trypsin and chymotrypsin these help to digest proteins, lipids to break down fats and amylase for the digestion of carbohydrates. After we have eaten our blood sugars rises as it releases glucose this makes our pancreas release a hormone called insulin in return it signals cells to increase our anabolic rate.
The second metabolism known as catabolism involves the hormones adrenaline/ epinephrine this is released as a response to the activation of the sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate and heart contractility, constricts blood vessels, is a bronchodilator that dilates the bronchi of the lungs to increase air volume in the lungs, and stimulates gluconeogenesis.
The adrenal glands release cortisol in response to stress, when this happens the blood glucose levels increases by gluconeogenesis, this is the breakdown of fats and proteins.
This is released from alpha cells which are in the pancreas this happens through starving or when the body needs to generate additional energy, its Stimulates the breakdown of glycogen in the liver to increase blood glucose levels. Which is the opposite of insulin, as part of the negative feedback glucagon and insulin stabilises blood glucose levels. Catabolism is the breakdown of molecules to obtain energy.
For example, the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate by cellular respiration. catabolism breaks down our body tissues and the energy stores which gives us the energy, we need for our body functions. A catabolic state is when our body breaks down or loses overall mass including fat and muscle. Example of catabolism includes glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, the breakdown of fat into adipose tissue to fatty acid as well as the oxidative deamination of neurotransmitters by monoamine oxidase.
The purpose of catabolism reactions is to provide energy and the components which are needed for anabolic reactions.
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By Aaron Christopher Slade